A Look Back at New York Weather History: October 2


1869 (Saturday)

Four inches of rain came from a hurricane that struck Cape Cod (1.84" fell today, 2.16" on the 3rd).


1927 (Sunday)

Today's high of 90° (following a record high of 88° yesterday) was the first reading in the 90s to occur in the month of October.  Since then it's happened just five other times - in 1938, 1939, 1941 (twice), and 2019.  After today's summery conditions, the next eighteen days would see nine inches of rain.


Hot outside


1929 (Wednesday)

The remnants of the season's second hurricane moved through eastern Pennsylvania, producing 2.55" of rain.  2.16" of it fell today, with most of it falling between 5 AM-3 PM (the rest of the rain fell yesterday in the PM hours).  This amount was a record for the date (which still stands).   


1989 (Monday)

1.10" of rain fell during the morning, making this the eighth year of the past ten to have measurable rain  on this date. 


2005 (Sunday)

Today was the 100th day this year with a high temperature of 80°+, just the fifth time this threshold was reached (it would also occur in 2015, which set the record for most such days, with 114).  A typical year has 85 such days.




2009 (Friday)

Although it was just 0.06", the showers that moved through after 11 PM produced the first rain on this date in 13 years. 


2015 (Friday)

The record warmth of September was a distant memory as the area was lashed by wind-driven rain (1.09"), and temperatures were mostly in the low-to-mid-fifties.  In the previous eleven weeks there had been just a handful of days that had cooler than average mean temperatures, and none more than two degrees cooler than average, but today's high/low of 57°/48° was nine degrees below average. 


2019 (Wednesday)

For the first time since 1941 the temperature soared into the 90s in October.  Today's high of 93° broke the record set in 1927 (which was October's first 90-degree reading).  This was a 12-degree jump from yesterday's high, which was already 12 degrees warmer than average, and the first 90-degree reading in six weeks (8/22), making it the fifteenth this year (below the average of 18).  However, this sultry air was ushered out during the evening, and by midnight the temperature had fallen by 30 degrees.


Chart - 90s in Oct





August 2023 Weather Recap: Protective Bubble Keeps Searing Heat Away From NYC


Protective bubble


Compared to other regions of the US, New York continued to be blessed by relatively mild summertime temperatures.  August was 1.1 degrees cooler than average and was the first August since 1986 not to have any reading in the 90s.  (By contrast, last August was the third hottest on record, with 11 days having highs in the 90s.)  It was the coolest August in six years (and the summer of 2023 was the coolest in six years as well).


The month's hottest reading was 88°, which occurred twice (on 8/13 and 8/21).  The last time the warmest temperature in August was 88° (or cooler) was in 1963 (the coolest warmest temperature of any August is 83° in 1927).  The warmest stretch this month was the four days between 8/11-14 with highs of 85°-85°-88°-87° (just slightly warmer than average).


Chart - chilliest warmest reading in aug

This was the tenth year in a row in which August’s coolest temperature was 60° or milder (63°).  Only five Augusts have had their coolest reading milder than this August.  However, the ten days with lows of 70° or warmer was below the average of 14 for August.  (This was after July had 24 such lows, third most on record for that month.)


Chart - mildest chilliest reading in aug

The most above and below average daily mean temperatures were in a narrow range of just +/- five degrees.  The coolest and warmest temperatures in August were just 25 degrees apart (63° and 88°), which is the narrowest range on record for the month of August (average is 34 degrees, 60° and 94°).  This followed July, which had the third smallest temperature range for that month (66° and 93°).  


6.56" of rain fell in Central Park, making this the 29th rainiest August (this was after no measurable rain fell in the first six days of the month).  This was the second greatest amount this year (behind April's 7.70").  Much of the month’s rain (nearly five inches) fell during relatively brief downpours between 1 AM and sunrise on six days.  The biggest deluge was 1.25" that fell between 3:30-5 AM on 8/16.


Here are monthly recaps for past Augusts:










July 2023 Weather Recap: Consistently Warm Rather Than Excessively Hot


 July 30 - purple flower


This post may be one of the few weather-related articles that doesn't hyperventilate about hot weather in the middle of summer.  And despite New York's news media hyping the term "heat dome" any time the local forecast called for a high approaching 90°, just five days in July had highs in the 90s in NYC, and there were no heat waves; the hottest reading was just 93°.  Globally, July was the hottest month on record, but that wasn't the case in Central Park as it was the 20th warmest July (average high/low was 86.4°/71.7°, 1.5 degrees above average).  


Every day but one had a high of 80° or warmer (the typical number of days in July with highs cooler than 80° is six), comparable to last July which had no such days.  As for low temperatures, this July and July 2022 both reported 24 days with lows in the 70s, tying three other Julys for third most (July 2020 had 26, 2010 had 25).  Although it had a below average number of days in the 90s (five versus seven), July 2023 had an above average concentration of highs that were 88° or 89°, with ten counted.


July was slightly wetter than average, with 5.34" measured.  This was almost double what fell in May and June combined (which had 1.29" and 1.62", respectively).  More rain fell in the first four days of July (1.66") than what fell in all of June.  This included 0.63" of rain that fell on 7/4, the most on Independence Day since 1981 (when 1.76" fell).   


The month's greatest daily rainfall was 1.32" on 7/16 (0.91" of it fell between 11 AM and 1 PM); this daily total was more than what fell in all of April.  On that day, which had a low of 74°, the high reached just 78°, which is the coolest high temperature ever reported with a low this warm.   


Only five days had below average temperatures, all of which occurred in the second half of the month.  Meanwhile, seven days were five or more degrees above average.


July's temperature range was only 27 degrees, from 66° to 93°.  This compares to an average range of 34 degrees (62° to 96°).  Only one other July has had a smaller range (2004's 24-degree range).


Although there were no heat waves, there was a streak of eight days with highs of 85° or warmer (July 22-29).  Finally, high dew points were a consistent feature of July as two-thirds of the days in July experienced dew points of 70° or warmer, giving the air an uncomfortable, tropical feel. 


Here are July recaps from previous years:

July 2022

July 2021

July 2020

July 2019

July 2018

July 2017

July 2016

July 2015

July 2014

June 2023 Weather Recap: Dry, Below Average Temperatures ... and Smoky Conditions


Nyc orange haze


After a May characterized by consistent sunny skies, June 2023 will likely be remembered for the one day, 6/7, when smoke from Canadian wildfires shrouded the City in an otherworldly orange haze.  This overshadowed the fact that June was the driest since 1999 (with 1.62" measured it became the 19th driest June overall) and was the coolest June since 2009 (two degrees below average).  Besides 6/7 there were other days that experienced low visibility because of the wildfires including the last three days of the month.   Other June highlights included:


  • The first two days of June were hot and sunny (with highs of 87° and 91°) but then the rest of the month was 2.6 degrees cooler than average with only five days having above average temperatures. 
  • Less than 48 hours after a high of 91° on 6/2, the low on 6/4 was 49° - the first reading in the 40s in June since 2000.
  • There were just nine days with highs of 80° or warmer, about half the average number of days (17).  This was the fewest since 1985 which also had nine days (June 1958 had eight).
  • June's first day with a low in the 70s was on 6/25 and came more than two months after the year's first such low on 4/14 (the earliest date for a low this warm).
  • June and May were both cooler than average, the first time back to back months were below average since April and May 2020.  This was also the second month in a row with less than two inches of rainfall (and it was the fourth year in a row in which June had less than three inches of rain).  June 2023's rainfall was nearly three inches below average.
  • 2023 became the 11th year in which three of the years' first six months had less than two inches of rain.


Here are June recaps from the previous six years:








New York's Top Weather Stories of 2022

Top stories

After 2020 and 2021 were among the ten mildest years on record in NYC (ranked second and eighth, respectively) 2022 was somewhat "cooler" as it ranked 16th (out of 154 years).  And it was significantly drier, with 13 inches less precipitation than 2021 (but it was an average amount).


Perhaps the biggest weather story of 2022 was the heat of the summer. Despite having a very late date for the first high in the 80s (5/21) the year had 25 days with highs in the 90s, which was the most since 2010.  For just the 12th time July and August each had 10 or more days with highs in the 90s.  Every day in July had a high of 80° or warmer and a six-day heat wave that month (7/19-24) was the longest one in ten years.  Nighttime temperatures were also balmy as July-August had the most lows in the 70s on record (46, compared to an average of 29).  Finally, a seven-day streak with lows of 75° or warmer in August was that month's second longest streak of its kind.  


As the year came to a close a "flash" cold snap at Christmastime came close to eclipsing July and August's heat as the year's top weather story.  This incursion of Arctic cold produced 1) the biggest temperature drop in one day (50 degrees); 2) the coldest reading since January 2019; 3) the coldest reading in December since 1989; and 4) the coldest reading on 12/24 since 1983.  As the Arctic air approached it was preceded by the year's biggest rainstorm on 12/23-24 when 2.05" of rain fell (1.33" fell in a one-hour period).  Other highlights of 2022:


  • The year began with a cold and snowy January (3.4 degrees below average, 15.3" of snow). 
  • Four months were well above average: August (+3.2 degrees); November (+2.9 degrees); March (+2.5 degrees); and July (+2.0 degrees). 
  • 2022's coldest reading was 7° on 12/24, hottest was 97° on 8/9.
  • A high/low of 33°/23° on 3/28 was one of the coldest days so late in the season since 1982.
  • A high of 77° on 11/7 was the mildest reading in November since 2003.  And the three days with lows in the 60s was the most in November since 1982.
  • The temperature on the day of the NYC Marathon (high/low of 75°/66°) was the warmest of the races run in November (since 1990). 
  • There was no measurable snow in November-December, joining just 14 other years with no measurable snow in those two months. 


Here are recaps of previous years:













May 2023 Weather Recap: Sunny & Dry Conditions Prevail


"Blue skies smilin' at me,Nothin' but blue skies do I see"

- Willie Nelson


May 2023 in New York brought to mind Willie Nelson's song "Blue Skies" as there was an overabundance of sunny or clear skies.  After the month began damp, chilly, and overcast (thru 5/5), 24 of the next 26 days saw either sunny or clear skies.  


With just 1.28" of rain measured in Central Park, May 2023 was the driest May since 1964 and the 13th driest May overall.  It had the same amount of precipitation as February (which was the 10th driest February).  Much of the month's rain, 0.77", fell on 5/20.


May's 14 days with humidity levels of 25% or lower was the most of any month this century (passing April 2010 which had 13); 11 of these days were consecutive, between 5/7 and 5/17.  May's previous most days of low humidity was seven (in 2014 and 2007).


The month was slightly cooler than average (-0.5 degrees) due to the average low, which was 1.4 degrees below average.  This was the first month this year with a below average temperature.  (Thru April, 2023 was about five degrees warmer than average.)


There was a 10-day period that had temperatures five degrees above average (May 7-16).  The other days of the month were three degrees below average.


After having two days with highs in the 90s in April, May's warmest reading was 87° (5/12).  The chilliest reading, 43°, came six days later.  And May's mildest low reading of 66° was lower than April's (70°).  The two days with lows in the 60s were the fewest in May since 2005. 


The first 19 days of May had 0.42" of rain, which was similar to the 0.40" of rain that fell in the first 21 days of April.   


On average May is 9.5 degrees warmer than April.  This year it was 5.1 degrees milder.  Only six other Mays have been closer to April's average temperature: 1945 (3.6 degrees milder); 2005 (3.8 degrees milder); 2017 (3.9 degrees milder); 2002 (4.6 degrees milder); 1968 (4.6 degrees milder); and 1915 (4.6 degrees). 


Here are recaps of the previous eight Mays:










Recap of April 2023: 2nd Mildest, 7th Wettest


April showers


April 2023 was 3.9 degrees above average and rainfall was about three and a half  inches above the norm, making the month the second mildest and seventh wettest April on record. 


After temperatures nine degrees milder than average occurred in the first two-and-a-half weeks of the month (including back-to-back days in the 90s), the last week of the month was five degrees below average.  This cool period is what prevented April from becoming the mildest on record (finishing 0.3 degrees behind April 2010).


As for rainfall, despite the first three weeks of April receiving just 0.40”, which was the least amount of rain thru 4/21 since April 1968, incredibly, the month became one of the wettest Aprils as 7.30" of rain fell in the last nine days of the month.  This rain came from three storm systems that each produced more than two inches of rain:  2.19” on 4/22-23; 2.79” on 4/28-29; and 2.32” on 4/30.  


April 13 and 14 had highs of 90° and 91°, respectively.  Only three other Aprils have had 90s on earlier dates: April 7, 2010; April 8, 1991; and April 12, 1977.  This was the 13th April to have highs in the 90s and the sixth with two or more (the most is three in 1976 and 2002).


The low of 70° on the morning of 4/14 has the distinction of being the earliest reading of 70+ on record.


The month’s chilliest reading was 37°.  Only four other Aprils have had their chilliest reading above that (last April was one of them; mildest is 42° in 1878); five other Aprils also had a chilliest reading of 37°.


Finally, the six-days between 4/11 and 4/16 were all ten degrees or more above average, with the three-day period of 4/12-14 being 25 degrees above average.  Meanwhile, the last week of April had below average temperatures each day - the longest streak of below average temperatures since December.


Chart - 5 mildest aprils


Here are April recaps of the previous seven years:










March 2023 Weather Recap - Third Month In a Row With Above Average Temperatures

Apr 1 - baby daffs

March 2023 was 1.8 degrees above average, continuing the year's streak of months with above average temperatures.  However, it wasn't nearly as above average as January (+9.8 degrees) or February (+5.2).  Sill, eleven days were five degrees or more above average (and three were five degrees or more below average).  Among all Marches  it was the 25th mildest.  The three previous Marches were all milder (2022 ranks #17, 2021 #13, and 2020 #7).


The mildest temperature in March was 63° (on 3/21 and 3/26), which was chillier than the mildest readings of February and January, which were 70° and 66°, respectively.  (On average the mildest reading in March is around 70°.)  This was just the ninth March to have its mildest reading chillier than January's or February's.  The previous time it happened was in 2008.  March 2023 had six days with highs in the 60s, all occurring between 3/17 and 3/27. 


 Chart - mildest jfm reading


The warmest reading of March was also the warmest reading in ten other Marches, making 63° the most frequent warmest reading in March.  The coldest reading was 29° (3/19), the mildest coldest reading in March since 2010.  (On average the coldest reading in March is around 20°.)


Chart - Mildest Coldest Temps in March


This March was only 1.1 degree milder than January (historically, it's about nine degrees milder).  Although this was one of the smallest temperature differences between the two months, there have been thirteen Marches that were colder than January.  (The last time this happened was in 1960.)


Twelve days had average mean temperatures (i.e., falling between one degree below average and one degree above average), which is the most to  be reported in March (in the years since 1960) and the most of any month since June 2014 (which had 13).  Seven of the days with average temperatures were consecutive (3/7-13). 


Twelve days also had humidity levels that dropped below 25%, the most in March this century.  (April 2010 had the most of any month, 13.)  They were concentrated in the 15-day period March 16-30, with ten of the days reporting very low humidity.  The lowest humidity level was 13% during the afternoon of 3/21. 


March's total precipitation was 3.32", nearly an inch below average.  Combined with February's 1.28", February/March was the 17th driest on record.  (The driest and second driest Feb/Mar were in 2012 and 2009.)  Besides this year, March 1975 also had 3.32" of rain, while March 2000 had 3.31" and March 1871 and March 1911 had 3.33".


Just 0.1" of snow was reported (on the morning of 3/7).  Twenty-two other Marches have had less.  (And three others had the same 0.1" as 2023.)  This brought the winter's snowfall to 2.3", making this the least snowy winter on record (0.5" less than the winter of 1972-73).


Finally, Jan-Feb-Mar 2023 became the mildest on record, just ahead of the first three months of 2012.


Chart - Mildest Jan-Feb-Mar


Here are previous March recaps: 












February 2023 Weather Recap: 3rd Mildest, 10th Driest



Following the mildest January on record, February 2023 was the third mildest February (behind Feb. 2018 and 2017).  One anomaly was an Arctic flash-freeze which saw the temperature drop to 3° on 2/4.  (By contrast, January’s coldest reading was 28°.)  Overall, the month was 5.2 degrees milder than average (January was 9.8 degrees above average), which was largely due to a 13-day period between Feb. 8-20 that had temperatures that were 12 degrees above average. 


The month was 2.4 degrees colder than January.  While the two months had similar average highs (48.6° in Feb., 48.7° in Jan.), February's average low was 4.6 degrees colder (33.6° vs. 38.2°)


The range in temperature during the month was 67 degrees (from 3° to 70°), which was the greatest range in February since 1961 (-2° to 65°).  Average range in February is 48 degrees (13° to 61°).  The reading of 70° on 2/16 was the twelfth time a reading of 70+ was reported in February and a year’s earliest date for a reading of 70+ since 2007.


Feb. 1 had the first measurable snow of the winter (0.4"), the latest date on record.  The next snowfall was nearly four weeks later (Feb. 27-28) when 1.8" fell.  32 other Februarys have had less snow than February 2023's 2.2", including last February and February 2020, which had 2.0" and a trace, respectively. 


1.28” of precipitation was reported, an amount that made it the tenth driest on record (0.01" less than February 1872, which was pushed out of the top 10).  The greatest amount from a storm was 0.55" on 2/27-28.  


The winter of 2023 was the third mildest on record (behind the winters of 2002 and 2016, but January and February 2023 became the mildest first two months of any year, easily beating Jan-Feb 1990.   Finally, the winter of 2023 was the 18th in which December was the coldest month.


Chart - 5 mildest winters

 Chart - 5 mildest jan-feb combo



Here are other February recaps:








Super Bowl Sunday Weather Highlights in New York City


 Super bowl party


Over the course of its 57-year history Super Bowl Sunday has slowly evolved to become, more or less, a national holiday.  Played in the midst of winter it has been scheduled as early as Jan. 9 (in the early years) and as late as Feb.15.  And while New York has had its share of cold temperatures on this day snow didn't have much of a presence until 2021 when 4.5" accumulated (and 1.6" fell the following year). 


Although most of the games have been played in the South or on the West Coast, the Super Bowl of 2014 was played in northern New Jersey.  And although that winter was cold and snowy, the day of the game had mild temperatures.  (But harsh winter weather returned the next day as eight inches of snow fell.)  


In addition to that Super Bowl, there have been six other Super Bowls of great interest to residents of New York City because of the participation of New York teams - and they won five of them.  The New York Jets were in one, Super Bowl III (1969), while the New York Giants have played in five between 1987 and 2012 (winning four).  None of these games had precipitation in NYC.  Coldest of the Giants/Jets Super Bowls in NYC was 1987's game (high/low of 25°/8°).  The mildest reading was 49°/33° in 2008.  


The 36 Super Bowls played in January had slightly colder than average temperatures in New York, averaging a high/low of 37°/24°, while the 21 played in February have been on days that were slightly above average, with a high/low of 44°/30°.


In terms of conditions in cities where the Super Bowl has been played, the coldest temperature for a Super Bowl occurred in 1972 when the game time temperature in New Orleans for Super Bowl VI was in the upper 30s (the coldest outside temperature for a game played in a domed stadium was 20° in Detroit in 1982).  Meanwhile, 1973's Super Bowl VII in LA was played with temperatures rising to 84° and thirty years later the game in Tampa saw a high of 82°.  Rain fell in Houston in for Super Bowl XVI in 2007 when Prince played in a steady rain during halftime.  The game played in Atlanta in 2000 had to contend with two ice storms during the week leading up to the game.  Finally, 1970's game in New Orleans had a threat of tornadoes while 1985's game in Stanford Stadium had to contend with foggy conditions.


Prince at super bowl 2007


The charts below focus on extreme weather conditions in New York on Super Bowl Sunday.



Four Super Bowl Sundays have had highs of 55° or milder.

  • 59° on Jan. 12, 1975
  • 58° on Jan. 28, 1990
  • 56° on Feb. 2, 2014
  • 55° on Feb. 5, 2006



Five Super Bowl Sundays had lows in the single digits, the last time being in 1987.  Eight Super Bowl Sundays have had highs of 25° or colder (the last time was also in 1987)

  • 4° on Jan. 20, 1985
  • 5° on Jan. 16, 1972 (also had the coldest high, 15°)



Nine Super Bowl Sundays have had measurable snowfall; five of them picked up an inch or more.  The most was 4.5" on Feb. 4, 2021 (during the daytime hours), the second most was the following year.

  • 4.5" on Feb. 4, 2021
  • 1.6" on Feb. 13, 2022
  • 1.5" on Jan. 30, 2000
  • 1.3" on Jan. 26, 1992
  • 1.0" on Feb. 6, 2003



Three Super Bowl Sundays had an inch or more, and another had 0.96"

  • 3.45" on Jan. 21, 1979 (before 7 AM)
  • 2.19" on Jan, 26, 1986 (before 9 AM)
  • 1.30" on Jan. 14, 1968
  • 0.96" on Feb. 4, 2018



Jan. 15, 1967 - The first Super Sunday had above average temperatures, with a high/low of 49°/37° in Central Park. Skies were a mix of sun and clouds.  (At the time, the game wasn't called the "Super Bowl".)

Jan. 16, 1972 - The morning low of 5° (coldest reading of the winter) came less than two days after the temperature reached 62° (at 10 PM on Jan. 14).  Combined with a high of only 15°, this was the coldest day of the winter.  (Only a handful of days have had a high temperature this cold.)

Jan. 9, 1977 - This was the first Super Bowl Sunday to receive measurable snow.  It began snowing at around 9 PM and by midnight 0.8" had been measured. 

Jan. 21, 1979 - 3.45" of rain fell, mostly before 7 AM.  This was the most rain to ever fall in a 24-hour period in the month of January.

Jan. 22, 1984 - High/low was 24°/9° and came at the end of an eight-day streak with highs of 32° or colder (and 11 of the past 12 days were 32° or colder).

Jan. 20, 1985 - This was the second year in a row in which the low was in the single digits, but this year it came after dark (on its way to a low of -2° the next morning).  The reading of 4° is the coldest reading NYC has had on the day of the Super Bowl.  Snow showers late in the morning produced a half-inch of snow.

Jan. 26, 1986 - 2.19" of rain fell, a record for the date, with much of it falling before 9 AM, but a second round of rain, from another low pressure system, moved in after 10 PM. 

Jan. 26, 1992 - The winter's first snowfall of an inch or more fell in the wee hours of the morning, accumulating 1.3".  This was also the first time an inch or more of snow fell on Super Bowl Sunday.  The daylight hours were mostly sunny but cold, with a high/low of 31°/20°.

Feb. 6, 2011 - Although the day had above-freezing temperatures for its entirety (high/low of 45°/37°), there was still 15" of snow left on the ground in Central Park from the 32" of snow that fell since 1/11.

Feb. 2, 2014 - Today's high of 56° made this the mildest reading of the month.  And fears that today's outdoor Super Bowl in northern New Jersey would be played in cold and/or snowy conditions were allayed when the game time temperature was in the upper 40s.  The following day conditions reverted to the nasty winter of 2014 with a snowfall of eight inches.

Feb. 4, 2018 - Nearly an inch of rain fell tonight, mostly between 5-11 PM. 

Feb. 7, 2021 - Periods of heavy snow fell between 9 AM and 6 PM, accumulating 4.5".  Central Park was low man on the totem pole as most surrounding locations reported six to eight inches.  The temperature didn't fall to freezing until early afternoon which likely kept the City's accumulation down. 

Feb. 13, 2022 - 1.6" of snow fell the day after the high reached 59°.  This was the first time measurable snow fell on consecutive Super Bowl Sundays, and this year's amount was the second biggest accumulation, behind last year's.  


 Super bowl trophy


A Look At Mild Winter Months With the Most Snow & Cold Winter Months With Little Snow




January 2023 was the mildest on record and had just a trace of snow (on three days); the two seem to go hand in hand.  That said, I was curious about mild winter months with appreciable snowfall and cold winter months with relatively little.  Call it an analysis of counter-intuitives.


Nearly 40% of  months that are among the 10 mildest between December and March have had no snow or just a trace.  But of the mildest months to report snow, the snowiest was February 2017 (ranked as the second mildest February) which had 9.4" of snow.  This amount fell on one day, 2/9, and came after a high temperature of 62° the day before.  The second most snowfall was in Feb. 1991 with 9.1".  8.9" of that amount was from a storm near the end of the month.


Chart - mild month with snow

On average, a top-10 coldest month in the winter (December thru March) averages 12 inches of snow.  The least snowy of these coldest months was December 1989 (ranked third coldest December) which reported just 1.4" of snow that fell during three non-consecutive days (0.1" on 12/13, 0.7" on 12/15 and 0.6" on 12/30).


Chart - coldest months with little snow

FYI, the snowiest month among the 10 coldest of each winter month is March 1896 which had 30.5".  Much of the snow fell from two storms, one of 11 inches and another of 10 inches.