Greatest New York Weather 'Hits' of 2021


 Rainy 2021


Nationwide, 2021's top weather events included Arctic cold in Texas in mid-February that shut down much of the state's power grid; searing heat at the end of June never before experienced in the Pacific Northwest; and a deadly tornado outbreak that Kentucky bore the brunt of on Dec. 10-11.  Meanwhile, New York's biggest story was the  consecutive months of unprecedented rainfall in July-August-September, which culminated in flooding downpours from the remnants of hurricane Ida on the night of Sept. 1, a deluge that was responsible for the deaths of nearly 50 residents of NYC and outlying suburbs (comparable to superstorm Sandy's death toll in Oct. 2012). 


The year was the eighth mildest and tenth wettest on record.   Eight of 2021's months were warmer than average, led by December (+4.7°, third mildest) and October (+4.1°, sixth mildest).  These months book-ended the most below average month of the year, November (-1.8°). 


Although the year's nearly 60 inches of precipitation was 10 inches above average, seven of the months had below average rainfall.  More than half of the year's precipitation (52%) was in July, August, and September.  And nearly half of the rain in those three months came from tropical systems Henri (8.19") and Ida (7.13").  Here are other highlights of 2021:


Chart - 10 warmest and 10 wettest years

  • A snowstorm that began Jan. 31 and continued into Feb. 2 dumped 17.4”.  Most of the accumulation, 16.8", fell in less than 24 hours (Sunday night, Jan. 31 thru late afternoon on Monday, Feb. 1).  After this snow event, an additional 10" of snow fell during the rest of the month, bring February's total to 26.0", making it the 8th snowiest February on record.
  • March had its first temperature in the 80s since 1998, occurring on 3/26 (82°).
  • In addition to the excessively wet months of July-Aug-Sept, there were also periods of very low humidity during the year.  For example, nearly half of the days in March had low humidity (below 25%); extremely low humidity was reported on April 6 (7%); and December had it lowest humidity on record on 12/17 (14%).
  • The coolest Memorial Day weekend on record (average high/low of 57°/48°) was followed by the ninth warmest June.  A high of 98° on 6/30 was NYC’s hottest reading in nine years years, and the hottest reading in June since another reading of 98° in June 1994.  But just three days later, July had its first reading in the 50s since 2009, and its coolest high temperature (66°) since 2005.
  • July, August, and September each had more than 10 inches of rain (July's amount was above 11") – not only the first time in nine years any month had that much rain, but the first time ever that three consecutive months had this much.  This was also the first year to have two rainstorms that produced seven inches+.  They were associated with downgraded hurricanes Henri and Ida , and they were less than two weeks apart (Aug. 21-23 and Sept. 1).
  • On the night of  9/1, Ida's rain poured down in just five hours time (and 3.13" in one hour).  More rain fell between 9-10 PM than fell in all of November and December.

As an aside, this one-hour amount was trumpeted by the National Weather Service as being Central Park's greatest one-hour amount on record - but this claim was in error, as NWS's own records show a greater 60-minute amount on Sept. 5, 1913, when 3.31" of rain was measured between midnight and 1 AM - 0.18" more than Ida's 60-minute gully washer.  (11 days earlier, a one-hour amount of 1.94" during Henri also had the NWS claiming it was an all-time record, which was even more in error, as there have been at least a dozen instances of greater amounts in an hour, most recently in July 2018.)

  • October had a record streak of lows in the 60s - thirteen days in a row.  It also set a record (for any month) of days with high/lows stuck in the 60s.  There were six such days, concentrated in the nine-day period between Oct. 3-11.  Finally, October's coolest reading of 47° was the mildest reading to have this distinction.
  • The final week of October was the rainiest on record (4.71" fell).  That week accounted for more than half of the precipitation measured from October thru December.  This rainy week was followed by the driest November-December on record.  These two dry months prevented the year from reaching the sixty-inch mark in precipitation, coming in at 59.73".  After 31.44" fell in July-September (32.09", if rain on 6/30 is included), 12 of the 13 weeks in October-December had less than 1/10 of that amount (3.06").


Here are recaps of previous years:










January 2022 Weather Recap - Coldest in 7 Years, Snowiest in 6


Winter cold and snow


After a December that was the third mildest on record, the first two days of January 2022 saw a continuation of these mild conditions, with highs of 56° and 59°.  Then the jet stream shifted, winter-like conditions arrived, and the month became the coldest January since 2015.  At 3.4 degrees colder than average, it was the most below average of any month in more than two years, since November 2019 (which was 4.1 degrees below average).  Subtracting the first two days of the month, which were 16 degrees milder than average, the rest of January was 4.5 degrees below average. 


Besides cold temperatures, snowfall was also above average, with 15.3" measured (after just 0.2" fell in December); most of it was produced by two snowstorms, as 5.8" fell on Jan. 7, and 8.3" was measured on Jan. 28-29.  This was the snowiest January since 2016 (which is the second snowiest January), and tied for 20th snowiest January overall.  Its snowfall was greater than the combined amount of the three preceding Januarys (5.5").


Chart - big jan snow after little in dec

January was 13.5 degrees colder than December.  Only three other Januarys have had a bigger drop in  temperature from December: Jan. 2016, Jan. 1912, and Jan. 1985.  (On average, January is five or six degrees colder than December.)


Chart - jan vs dec temperatures

January's average low of 23.5° was 4.4 degrees colder than average, while the high was 2.4 degrees colder.  January's average high of 37.1° was 1.2 degrees colder than December's average lowThe coldest reading was 10° on 1/15 and on 1/16.  The coldest day (based on mean temperature), was on 1/15, when the high/low was 21°/10° (17 degrees colder than average).  Overall, there were 12 days that were 8 degrees or more below average; half of them were 12 or more degrees below average.  


Finally, 11 days had highs of 32° or colder, including the last six days of the month, the longest streak since one of 14 days during the winter of 2017-18.  This streak's average high/low was 30°/19° (nine degrees below average).


Here are previous January recaps since 2014 (there was no recap published for Jan. 2016).












Weather of 2022 in New York


1 - It was a rainy and mild start to the new year, with a high/low of 56°/50°, and 0.79" of rain (most of which fell after dark).   This was the first low of 50° or milder on 1/1 since 1979, and just the third time overall with a low in the 50s on this date.  The high of 56° was the tenth warmest reading (tied with 2007).  After a record dry November and December, today was the rainiest day since late in October.

7 - A fast-moving winter storm produced 5.8" of snow, most of it falling before sunrise.  This was the winter's  first snowfall of one-inch or more, coming about two weeks later than the average date of this occurrence.  Curiously, although Central Park and LaGuardia Airport (which are just seven miles apart) had similar amounts of liquid precipitation (0.38" and 0.33", respectively), CPK's accumulation of snow was 3.9" less than LGA's (9.7"). 

With today’s snowfall, the month’s precipitation for the first week of January reached 1.44”, which was .05” more than what fell in all of December.

8 - With a high/low of 30°/20°, today had the winter's first high of 32° or colder.  This was three weeks later than the typical date, and was the latest date for this occurrence since the winter of 1986-87, when it happened on 1/20.  This "first of the winter" milestone happened the same week as the first low in the teens (1/4), and the first snowfall of an inch or more (1/7).

15 - With a high/low of 21°/10°, today was the coldest day of the winter.  The day's low was the coldest reading in Central Park in nearly three years, since a low of 2° on Jan. 31, 2019.  (10° is on par with the average coldest temperature of winters going back to 1990.)  At sunrise, wind chills were in the 0° to -5° range.  Tomorrow's low would also be 10° (but with a high that was 16 degrees warmer than today's).

17 - 1.53" of precipitation fell during a winter storm that moved in yesterday evening, beginning as snow for a few hours (accumulating 0.8"), and then continuing as rain until mid-morning today (when 1.16" fell).  The storm's total was  was more than what fell in either November (1.12") or December (1.39").  Furthermore, this amount of precipitation doubled what had fallen in the first 15 days of January, and at 3.07" in total, was more than what fell in November and December combined.

29 - Snow that began after 8 PM last night continued thru mid-afternoon, accumulating 8.3".  The 7.3" that fell today was a record for the date and was the first snowfall of an inch or more on 1/29 since 1973.  Visibility was less than 1/2 mile for much of the morning.  The temperature dropped sharply overnight from upper 20s to mid-teens after daybreak; winds that gusted between 25-35 mph produced wind chills of 0° to 5° above zero.  This snowstorm had the coldest temperatures since the snowstorm of Jan. 21, 2014 , when 11.5" piled up and temperatures dropped to the low teens in the final hours of the storm.  Today was the 4th consecutive day with a high of 32° or colder, the longest streak in Central Park since the winter of 2018, when there was a 14-day streak (Dec. 26-Jan. 8).

The City was spared much worse conditions as it was on the western edge of an intense nor'easter that brought blizzard conditions  and 15"-30" of snow to Long Island and southeastern New England.



5 - The temperature at daybreak was 21°, which was a drop of 36 degrees from yesterday's high reading of 57° which occurred in the morning.  The last time the City experienced a drop this great in such a short period of time (25 hours) was in April 2018, when the mercury fell from 77° during the afternoon of 4/14, to 38° at daybreak on 4/15. 

13 - 1.6" of snow fell the day after the high reached 59°.  And although it was quite a turnaround, it pales in comparison to Feb. 9, 2017, when a 9.4" snowfall followed a high of 62° the day before.  And on Feb. 3, 2014, 8.0" fell the day after a high of 56°.  This was the second year in a row in which snow fell on Super Bowl Sunday.  4.5" fell last year, which was the most to fall on the NFL's big day (the game was played on 2/7); this year's amount was the second biggest accumulation.

17 - Today had the year’s first reading in the 60s.  At 68° it was the warmest reading in three months (since 11/18), and a record for the date.  The last time a reading this mild happened in February was in 2018, when the mercury soared to 78° on 2/21 (the warmest temperature ever reported in February).  Today’s spring-like reading, 25 degrees above average, came just two days after a low of 16°.  (There was also a low of 16° on 2/14,  two days after a high of 59°.)

23 - For the second time in past six days the high reached 68°; however, unlike 2/17’s high, today’s was not a record.  Then after dark, a cold front moved through, and the temperature dropped to the mid-30s by midnight (however, there was no precipitation).  This was the third day this month with a diurnal variation of 30 degrees or more - just the second February with three or more such days (February 1918 had four). 



- The temperature rose into the 70s, topping out at 74°, tying the record for the date.  This followed another record tying high yesterday (68°), and was the first reading in the 70s this year, about two weeks ahead of schedule (by contrast, the first day in the 60s, on 2/17, was two weeks behind schedule).  The temperature was still at 71° at 10 PM, when a cold front blew through with winds that gusted to 49 mph in Central Park.  Today's reading was the fourth high of 68+ in the past three weeks, joining 2/17, 2/23, and 3/6 (which all had highs of 68°).   

9 - It was a sloppy day with wet snow occasionally mixed with rain and temperatures that hovered between 33° and 35°.  The 0.56" of liquid that fell (between 8:30 AM and 6 PM) produced just 0.4" of snow - but this was more snow than what fell in March 2020 or 2021 (both saw only a trace). 

22 - On average, relative humidity in March between 2PM and 9PM is in the 55%-60% range, but today it was between 11% and 13%.  Only four other dates in the 21st century have had lower readings: 6% on March 30, 2007; 7% on April 6, 2021; 9% on April 20, 2016; and 10% on April 20, 2006.   Skies were sunny and temperatures above average for the ninth day in a row (high/low of 58°/43°).  This was the fifth day in the past four weeks to  have an hour or more with humidity at 25% or lower. 

28 - An Arctic front moved through last night, and today's high/low of  33°/23° would have been cold even in the depths of winter.  Although the day's low was far from the record for the date (13°), the high broke the record from 1893 for coldest daily maximum.  This was the coldest high temperature this late in March/early April in 40 years, since April 7, 1982, when the high/low was 30°/21°.  Today had the coldest mean temperature of the month as well as the past six weeks (0.5 degree colder than 3/13, which had a high/low of 35°/22°, and 2/20, which had a  high/low of 36°/21°).

Making the cold even more biting was the wind, which gusted between 20-30 mph.  Finally, the air was quite dry, with afternoon humidity falling to 20%; dew points were in the -5° to +5° range throughout the day.



7 - Rain moved in at around noon and continued for the rest of the day.  1.12" was measured , with a large portion of it (0.40") falling between 11 PM-midnight (an additional 0.04" fell on 4/8).  Meanwhile, suburbs in northern NJ, the Hudson River valley, and western Connecticut reported between two and four inches.  Besides the rain, it was also windy, with gusts between 20-30 mph.  This inclement weather forced the Yankees to postpone their home opener - the fifth home opener postponed since 2003.

8 - The day after rain postponed the Yankees' home opener, today's rescheduled game was played under sunny skies and temperatures in the 60s.  Additionally, the air was quite dry, with the relative humidity dropping to 23% in mid-afternoon.  (Perhaps best of all, the Yankees beat their arch-rivals, the Red Sox, in extra innings.)    

15 - Conditions for the Mets home opener were a near replica of last week's Yankees first game as skies were sunny and the day's high reached 70°.  And the visiting team, the Arizona Diamondbacks, probably felt at home because of the very low humidity, which dropped to 13% when the first pitch was thrown.  But the hospitality ended there as the Mets easily won the game, 1o-3.   Today was the fourth day in a row with readings in the 70s - the first time for a streak of this length since late September.

16 - Today, with a high of 73°, was the fifth day in a row with a high of 70°+.  The average high during this streak was 73°, 12 degrees above average.  The last time there was a streak of this length in April was eleven years ago (but it occurred 12 days later than this year's streak). 

17 -With a high/low of 51°/41°, this was the chilliest Easter Sunday since 2009 (49°/36°).  This followed five consecutive days with highs in the 70s.  And similar to last Easter, the air was quite dry, with the humidity bottoming out at 25% in mid-afternoon. 

19 - A fast-moving nor'easter that moved in late last night was over by daybreak today.  2.09" of rain poured down, mostly between 10 PM and 3 AM.  Winds gusted to 37 mph at Central Park, with 45-65 mph gusts common on Long Island and in Connecticut.  This was the biggest rain total from a storm system since a nor'easter dumped 3.53" of rain nearly six months ago (on 10/25-26 ).   

28 - For the second time this spring the humidity in the middle of the afternoon dropped to 11% (the other day was 3/22; 4/15 had humidity of 13%).  The day also featured clear skies, gusty winds (25-35 mph), and temperatures that were ten degrees below average (high/low of 58°/40°). 



9 - It was a day with very low humidity, which bottomed out at 13% at 1o PM -  the lowest humidity reported for this time of day in the years since 2000 (daily humidity is usually lowest mid-afternoon).  Additionally, this was the seventh day this year with humidity falling to 15% or below, which is the greatest number of days going back to 2000 (breaking a tie with 2021).  Furthermore, this was the lowest humidity reported in May.  Finally, humidity of 15% between midnight and 2 AM on 5/10 was the lowest humidity reported so early in the day. 

21 - The temperature reached the 80s for the first time this year, the latest date for this occurrence since 1988.  This was the tenth latest date for this occurrence on record.  And with a high of 90°, this was just the fourth year to have the first 80 and first 90 occur on the same day (joining 1918, 1927 and 2010).  This was the first time a reading was in the 90s in May since 2018.   Besides the heat, the air was oppressive, with afternoon dew points in the 68-70° range.  The morning low of 62° was the coolest on a day with a high in the 90s since 2010, when there was a low of low of 56° on 4/7 (the earliest date on record for a reading in the 90s).

22 - The day after the year's first high in the 90s, today had the first low in the 70s.  Today missed by one degree becoming the first May weekend since 1987 with both days having highs of 90+ (only five May weekends have had this happen; 1987’s is the hottest of them, with highs/lows on May 30 and 31 of 97°/74° and 94°/76°). 

This weekend's unseasonably warm temperatures were similar to the same weekend last May, with this year’s highs/lows being 90°/62° and 89°/72°, while last year’s (on May 22 and 23) were 89°/65° and 88°/68°.

28 - An isolated, severe thunderstorm struck Central Park early in the afternoon, dumping 0.64” of rain in less than an hour (and there was a wind gust of 42 mph).  By contrast, Newark, LGA and JFK had minimal rainfall (and my Greenwich Village neighborhood didn’t get hit as hard as CPK).  Combined with rain early in the morning, the day’s total rainfall of 0.72” set a record as the rainiest Saturday of any Memorial Day holiday weekend.  (Pushing ahead of the 0.68” that fell in 1982, and 0.65” in 2020).  

31 - Mostly sunny and hot, with a high of 93°.  This was the hottest reading in May since 2000, when the high was 93° on 5/7.  (But it should be noted that there was a high of 96° in April 2002).  This was the second 90-degree reading this month, and although it was three degrees hotter than the high on 5/21, today may have felt slightly more comfortable as the dew point was 8-10 degrees lower than what it was during the afternoon of 5/21.



15 - Today, with a high of 83°, was the third day in a row with a high of 80°+ in Central Park - the first time this year, and the deepest into a year since 2003.  Typically, this occurs around May 21-23.  (The first reading of 80°+ this year, on 5/21, was the latest since 1988).

18 - After yesterday's sultry conditions (bright sunshine and a high of 88°), today felt like October as skies were overcast and afternoon temperatures were only in the mid-60s; adding to the chill were gusty winds clocked between 30-40 mph.  (Despite this change, it appeared half of the City's residents hadn't heard the day's forecast as they were walking about dressed as if they expected a repeat of yesterday's summer-like conditions.)   

19 - It was a beautiful Father’s Day despite it being ten degrees chillier than average (high/low of 73°/54°), along with a stiff breeze that persisted throughout the day (but not as windy as yesterday.  This was the first Father’s Day since 2012 not to have a high of 80° or warmer (the average between 2013 and 2021 was 85°).  And the last time the low temperature was this chilly on Father’s Day was in 1958.  Furthermore, humidity late in the afternoon dropped to 25%, which was comparable to the humidity level on Father's Day in 2018 (24%).   

21 - It was an overcast, cool, and somewhat damp day (some sprinkles, mist, and fog from mid-afternoon onward).  Temperatures were stuck in the 60s, with a high/low of 67°/62; the high was 15 degrees cooler than average, but the low was just 5 degrees under.  This was the only day this month with a high in the 60s, and the first since another high of 67° occurred on 5/24.  



3 - For the third day in a row the low temperature was 73°.  The highs on these three days, however, were all different: 91°-87°-88° (today).

4 - Under fair skies, the day's high/low was 85°/65°.  During the early afternoon the humidity dropped to 22%, which was the lowest reported in July since 2010, when it was 19% at 4 PM, also on 7/4.  This afternoon's low humidity made the temperature feel like 82°.

6 - Today's high was 85°, the seventh consecutive day with highs of 85° or warmer.  The last time there was a streak this long was in June 2020 (6/20-26).  The average high/low during the streak was 87°/71° (2020's was 87°/72°).

14 - Today was the third day in a row with a high in the 90s, making this the first heat wave of the year.  With highs of 90°-91°-90° (today) this was one of the most tepid 3-day heat waves on record.  Only three other heat waves of this length have been "cooler" (in 1873, 1939, and 2013).

16 - After just 0.33" of rain fell in Central Park during the first half of the month (the least rain to fall in the first 15 days of July in 20 years),  1.10" of rain poured down during a mid-afternoon thunderstorm between 1:45 and 2:30.  This was equal to the amount of rain that fell in the previous 30 days.  This heavy rain was very localized, with LaGuardia Airport reporting 0.54", Newark 0.09", and Kennedy just 0.02".  Today's rainfall broke a streak of 18 years with no measurable rain on this date.

During the storm the temperature dropped from 85° to 66°.  Despite this cool-down the air still had a tropical feel as the dew point was close to 70° for the rest of the afternoon and past nightfall (and the temperature rebounded to the mid-70s). 

18 - 1.85” of rain fell today, a record for the date (the previous record, 1.76", was set 10 years earlier).  Much of it poured down in two 45-minute periods - at daybreak (0.84” fell between 6:00-6:45) and during the afternoon (0.73” between 2:00-2:45).  Rainfall amounts over three inches were reported in north Jersey and the Hudson Valley.  The air had a tropical feel to it, with the dew point reaching 76° in early afternoon and in the early evening; for 13 consecutive hours (9 AM-10 PM) it was 74% or higher. 

Despite the clouds and high humidity, the temperature managed to rise to 81°, making this the 20th day in a row with a high of 80° or warmer.  However, today’s high was the coolest of the 20 days.  (FYI, 20 days is the average length of a summer’s longest streak of 80+ days.) 

21 - After peaking at 92° late in the morning, the temperature tumbled to 74° during a brief downpour in the early afternoon, but after skies cleared the mercury rebounded to 91° by early evening.  The dew point in the afternoon held steady at a very oppressive 76° from 2:00 through 6:00.  This was the third day in a row with a high in the 90s.  At 11:00 the temperature was still at 88°.

24 - This was the last day of a six-day heat wave, Central Park's longest since one of seven days in 2013.  This was New York's 12th heat wave of six days and it ranks as the second hottest based on mean temperature and average low.  Three of the days had highs of 95°,  but today, with a high/low of 95°/79° had the hottest mean temperature (7/20 and 7/23 had highs/lows of 95°/78°).  Despite the hot conditions, Central Park's heat was somewhat bearable compared to Newark which had five consecutive days with highs in the triple digits.

25 - The six-day heat wave ended today when a severe thunderstorm in the early afternoon prevented the temperature from going no  higher than 86°.  In less than an hour 0.98” of rain fell between 1:00 and 2:00, and the temperature dropped to 73°.  But despite the temperature drop the dew point was in the mid-70s for three hours in the afternoon.  In the past ten days 4.10” of rain fell, mostly from six severe thunderstorms.  

31 - July 2022 joined July 1940 and August 2015 as the only three months on record in which no day had a high cooler than 80°.  The mildest reading this month was 81° on 7/18 and 7/26.  On average, July has six days with highs below 80°.  This streak of 80°+ days began on 6/29 (and today would be the last day of the streak, which was the 12th longest on record).  A big difference between this July and July 1940 is that July 1940 had seven more days with highs of 90+, while July 2022 had seven more days with lows in the 70s. 



1 -  Overnight showers and overcast skies during the daylight hours brought two streaks to an end - a 13-day streak of lows in the 70s, and a 33-day streak with highs in the 80s or warmer.  The streak of 80°+ is the 12th longest on record. (Longest was 62 days, in 2015.)  The streak of warm low readings tied for 23rd longest. (Longest was 22 days in 2010 and 1980). Today's high of 77° would be the coolest high temperature of the month, and the 0.48" of rain that fell made this the wettest day of a dry month (1.71" fell in total).

9 - Today's high was a blistering hot 97° (heat index reached 104°), which was 1) the hottest reading of the year; 2) the hottest reading so late in the summer since 2015 (when it was 97° on 9/8); and 3) the hottest high in August since 2006 (when it was 97° on 8/2).  This was also the fourth day in a row with a high in the 90s (and eighth consecutive day with a high of 89° or hotter).

11 - Although streaks of high temperatures in the 90s/100s generate more headlines, a streak of days with highs of 87° or warmer that reached ten days today was worth noting because it was the longest in ten years.  Six of the days were in the 90s, three reached 89°, and yesterday saw a maximum reading of 87°.  Average high during the streak was 91°.  (The longest streak of its kind was 18 days in the summer of 1988, 7/29-8/15.)

12 - With a high of 85°, today was the eleventh day in a row with a high of 85° or warmer, the longest such streak since one of 14 days in July 2016 (8/6-8/19).  Average high during these eleven days was 90.5°.  Additionally, the humidity dropped to 25% late in the afternoon, the lowest humidity in August since 2012 and just the third date in August this century with humidity of 25% or lower (the other date was 8/20 in 2010 when it dropped to 24%).

17 - After receiving just 0.30" of rain in the previous 15 days, slightly more than that amount (0.34") fell in less than an hour during a heavy shower tonight between 9-10 PM.  Interestingly my neighborhood, which is located about four miles south of the park's weather station, had no rain.  During the shower the temperature dropped 11 degrees to a refreshing 63°, which was the coolest reading since the same low was reported on 6/24. 

25 - With a high of 91°, this became New York's twelfth summer with consecutive months with ten or more days with highs of 90+ (July had 10).  However, because of low humidity during the afternoon, the "feels like" temperature was in the upper 80s.  Today was the 23rd day with a high in the 90s (or hotter) this year, the most since 2010 (which had 37 in total).

27 - This was the third year in a row to have a high in the 90s on this date: 90° this year, 93° last year, and 90° in 2020.  In 2021 and 2020, these readings were the last in the 90s of the summer.



1 - Today's conditions were drastically different from a year ago when the remnants of hurricane Ida flooded the City with more than seven inches of rain.  By contrast, this year had clear skies and humidity that dropped to 22% during mid-afternoon, which was just the fourth time this century that the humidity level in September was at or below 25%.  It was also a warm day, with a high 86°, which was warmer than the warmest reading of the previous two Septembers (85° for both).

4 - Today's high of 90° was the 25th in the 90s this year, making 2022 the 20th year with 25 or more.  Of the 20, this year ranks last for average of its high readings (91.8°) as more than half of the days had highs of 90° or 91° (including the last six).  This was the first Sunday before Labor Day with a high of 90° or hotter since 2014.

5 - With a high of 88°, Labor Day was warmer than both the 4th of July (high of 85°) and Memorial Day (84°).  Like yesterday, today's high was noticeably hotter than the low 80s that had been predicted.  The City managed to have a fairly decent day as a large area of rain stayed to the north and west; a few showers moved in after dark.

6 - A steady light rain fell mostly between dawn and dusk and amounted to 0.78".  Although this amount was the most to fall in one day in about six weeks, it was significantly less than the 2.00" to 2.50" that had been forecast a few days ago.  However, northern New Jersey, the lower Hudson Valley and western Connecticut saw amounts between 2.50" and 5.00".  

23 - It was a brisk fall day, with clear skies, gusty winds (25-30 mph), and temperatures more typical of mid-October (high/low of 63°/51°).  The day's low was the chilliest since 5/10, the high was the chilliest since 5/8, and at ten degrees below average the mean temperature was the most below average since 5/7, when the high/low was 50°/45° (13 degrees below average).   

25 - After nice conditions during the daylight hours, 1.11" of rain poured down during a thunderstorm late in the day, mostly between 9:30-10:30 PM.  (Ironically, 9/25 is one the calendar dates least likely to see measurable rain.) The intensity of the rain was nearly identical to a torrential downpour on 7/16 when 1.10" fell in a 45-minute period during the afternoon.  Amounts were higher west of the City (1.44" at Newark Liberty Airport) and less to the east (0.78" at LaGuardia, 0.28" at JFK).



1 - Although the center of circulation from what was left of hurricane Ian was 350 miles to the southwest of New York, breezy conditions (a peak gust of 27 mph at Central Park) and morning showers that amounted to 0.58” was attributed to the downgraded storm.  Much of the rain fell between 6-7 AM (0.19”) and 11 AM-noon (0.21”).  It was a chilly day, with a high/low of 61°/51° (eight degrees below average).  And inclement conditions linked to Ian would continue for the next four days.

4 - It was a raw and very soggy day, with 1.85” of rain measured.  A little more than half of this amount (1.05”) fell between 2-4 AM.   (Ironically, after Sept. 5, Oct. 4 is the date least likely to have measurable rain.)  This amount tied 7/18 as the rainiest day of the year.  Today's high/low was just 55°/46°, eleven degrees chillier than average, and followed a high of 53°/47° the day before.  Although the rainfall measured in Central Park was well below the record for the date (4.05” in 1877), the area’s three airports all set daily records, but not because the amounts were greater than CPK's.  Rather, their weather records don’t go back nearly as far as Central Park’s - Newark’s records go back to 1931, LaGuardia’s to 1939, and JFK’s to 1948.

4-5 - It was showery and cool with temperatures stuck in the 50s for the entirety of Yom Kippur (sundown to sundown); showers produced half an inch of rain (in 2019 Yom Kippur had similar temperatures and rainfall).  These inclement conditions were from the remnants of hurricane Ian, which first affected the area on the first of the month.  Skies cleared shortly after the holiday ended.

6 - After five consecutive days of overcast skies, showers, and chilly temperatures (highs averaged 58°, 11 degrees below average), today was sunny and warm with a high of 74° (six degrees above average).  The last time it was this mild was on 9/26. 

14 - A hard rain that fell from last night into the wee hours of this morning amounted to 0.99”, bringing the month’s rainfall to 4.30”.  Although this was far from New York’s rainiest two weeks, this amount was more than what fell during six months this year, and not much less from what fell during April (4.53"), May (4.52"), and July (4.55").

25 - It was mild and very humid with humidity in the 87% to 97& range all day.  (Typical range in October is 57% to 77%).  While the high of 70° was the mildest reading in nearly two weeks, the day’s low of 61° was the first low in the 60s in five weeks (and what the average high is on 10/25).  Overall the day was 11 degrees above average.  With the dew point being very close to the air temperature, thick fog was produced, reducing visibility to one mile or less from 2 AM until noon.



4 - Pattern of the high temperatures of the first four days of November: 67° (11/1)-70°-67°-70°.

5 - Today's high of 76°, eighteen degrees above average, was the warmest reading in November in 19 years.  This came after a morning low of 64°, which was the mildest low temperature in nearly seven weeks (since 9/20's low of 67°), and was nine degrees warmer than the average high for the date.  The first five days of November were the complete opposite of the first five days of October as the average high/low of Nov. 1-5 was 70°/56° (11 degrees above average), with very little rain, while the first five days in October averaged 58°/50° (9 below average) with more than three inches of rain.

6 - The NYC Marathon, which was run today, was moved to November in 1986 so that it was less likely runners would need to contend with warm conditions, but this year's race was an outlier as it was the warmest of the races held in November, with a high/low of 75°/66°.  And perhaps posing even more of a challenge for runners was the humidity, with the dew point in the low 60s.  Today's high was a record for the date, and might have climbed even higher if it wasn't for mostly overcast skies.  As for the day's low, only Nov. 2, 1971 has had a warmer daily minimum in November (67°). 

7 - This was the fourth day in a row with a high in the 70s, and at 77° it was the warmest of them all.  The average high during this streak was 74.5°, which was 17 degrees above average.  Today also featured clear skies and humidity that dropped sharply in the afternoon, bottoming out at 15% at 6 PM; this was the second lowest reading in November in the years since 2000 (lowest was 13% on 11/16 in 2019).  If the morning low of 68° had held it would have been the warmest low on record in November, but colder air moved in after 8 PM and by midnight the temperature had dropped to 54° (still 10 degrees above the average low for the date). 

11 - The remnants of hurricane Nicole, which made landfall on Florida's east coast yesterday, brought rain during the afternoon and evening, which amounted to 0.89" (half of it fell between 5-7 PM).  The air had a tropical feel with PM temperatures in the mid-to-upper 60s and dew points in the mid-60s. 

12 - Today's low of 60° was the third low in the 60s this month, the most in November sincce 1982 which had four (the most on record).

14 - After the first 13 days of the month averaged 10 degrees above average, today's low of 37° was the first reading in the 30s this fall, one day shy of tying the record for latest date, set in 1938 (that November's other claims to fame was 12.8" of snow between 11/24-27 and a low of 16° on 11/26).  This was nearly three weeks later than the average date for this occurrence.

19 - This morning's low of 31° was the first reading of 32° or colder this season.  Despite an extraordinarily mild start to November (11 degrees above average through 11/12), this first low at freezing or colder occurred on schedule.  Today was the sixth day in a row with below average temperatures (averaging seven degrees colder than average).   

24 - This was the eighth day in a row with sunny skies and, fittingly, this morning's telecast of Macy’s Thanksgiving Day parade began with the star of the Broadway revival of Funny Girl singing "Don’t Rain On My Parade".  The day had close to seasonable temperatures, with a high/low of 54°/40°.



21 - Today had a high of 40° and was the eighth day of the past 12 to have a high of either 39° or 40°. (The other days had highs of 38°, 42° and 44° <twice>).

23 - An intense, fast moving storm (a "bomb" cyclone) brought a record amount of rain during the morning, then Arctic cold swept in with wind gusts of 40-65 mph (peak gust in Central Park was 45 mph).  After peaking at 58° before sunrise, the temperature fell for the rest of the day and was down to 8° just before midnight, establishing a new record for the greatest drop in temperature during the course of one day (previous record was a 48-degree drop on March 28, 1921). 

Total rainfall was 1.83”, with much of it falling in the hour between 4-5 AM when 1.33" was measured.  Today’s rain made December the wettest month of the year (5.55”), only the fourth December to have this distinction (joining Dec. 2019, 1973, and 1957).

24 - Mostly clear skies and frigid temperatures. The day’s high/low was just 15°/7°  (26 degrees below average), making this the coldest day of the year, the coldest high reading on Christmas Eve in 150 years and the coldest low since 1983.  This was also the first day this winter with high of 32° or colder, a week later than average.  The day's low was the coldest reading of the entire year, the coldest reading since Jan. 31, 2019 (2°) and the coldest reading in December since 1989 (6° on 12/23).  

25 - Although today was nearly twice as warm as yesterday, its high/low of 28°/14° made this the first Christmas Day with a high of 32° or colder since 2013.  And the last time the low was so cold on 12/25 was in 1989.

30 - Under sunny skies today's high of 62° was the warmest reading in seven weeks (since a high of 69° on 11/12).  This came six days after a frigid high of only 15°.  

31 - Last year's mild conditions were topped this year as the temperature was three degrees milder when the new year arrived (54° vs. 51°).  Only three other years have ended on a milder note (1966 <58°>, 1973 <58°>, and 1993 <55°>).  And the day's high of 55° was equal to last year.  The day's mean temperature  was 18 degrees above average, a complete turnaround from a week ago which was 26 degrees colder than average (high/low of 15°/7°).  Despite showers during the afternoon and evening, the rain stopped about half an hour before midnight.


To read highlights from other years between 1970 and 2021 double click here. 





December 2021 Weather Recap: Mild & Dry

 December 2021 recap

December 2021 was the third mildest on record (behind 2015 and 2001, and 0.1 degree ahead of 1984), and tied for fourteenth driest.  At 4.7 degrees above average, it was the most above average month of 2021 (passing October, which was 4.1 above average).  Although it ranked third for mean temperature (average of high/low), the month had the second mildest average low, and was tied for seventh mildest average high.


Seven days had mean temperatures that were 10+ degrees above average, and eight days had highs of 55° or milder (half of these days were in the 60s).  The mildest reading was 66° on 12/11, which was a record for the date.  Two extended periods of mild temperatures were largely responsible for the month being so mild, as Dec. 11-18 was 11 degrees above average (high/low of 56°/44°), and the last week of December was 8 degrees milder than average (48°/40°).  This was just the seventh December to have no temperatures of 32° or colder in the last seven days of the month. 


Six days had lows of 32° or colder (average number for December is 14), with the coldest reading being 25° on 12/20.  Only three other Decembers have had a milder reading as their coldest reading:  2015 (34°); 2012 (28°); and 1974 (26°).  And Dec. 1984's coldest reading was also 25°.  (On average, the coldest reading in December is in the upper teens; before 1970 it was in the low teens). 


Like November, December was quite dry, with just 1.39" of precipitation  measured.  Combined, these two months became Central Park's driest Nov.-Dec. on record.  Ironically, this dry combo occurred in one of the ten wettest years on record.  By contrast, the nine driest November-Decembers behind 2021 had about twenty inches less annual precipitation than 2021.


Chart - Driest NovDec 

With the exception of the last week in October, which had 4.71" of rainfall (the wettest last week of October on record), the other 12 weeks between Oct. 1 and Dec. 31 had only 3.06". 


December had just 0.2" of snow, which occurred in the pre-dawn hours of 12/24.  However, meager snowfall in December isn't uncommon, as smaller amounts (or none at all) have occurred in five Decembers  since 2001, and nine since 1994 (once every three years).


Unusually low humidity was reported on two dates - 20% on 12/14, and 14% on 12/17 (both in the afternoon).  Going back to the early 1940s, 14% is the lowest humidity ever reported in December (the previous low was 16% on Dec. 8, 1981).  Humidity levels below 25% are very rare in December (most instances of low humidity occur in March and April).


Finally, the month, and year, ended on a mild note as the temperature at the stroke of midnight was 51° (after a high of 55°).  This was the mildest reading during the ball drop at Times Square since 2004 (and the fifth mildest ball-drop reading on record).


Chart - 10 Mildest Decembers 

Other December recaps:








 Windowsill xmas

November 2021 Weather Recap: Dry & Chilly

 Nov 2021 calendar

With just 1.12" of rain, November 2021 was the driest November since 1976 (the driest November on record).  The month was also 1.8 degrees chillier than average, making it the most below average month of the year (February and July were  1.7  and 1.5 degrees below average, respectively).  This November was significantly chillier than last November (the mildest on record), as it was 6.8 degrees colder - the biggest temperature drop from the previous November since Nov. 2012.  Only eight other Novembers have had a bigger drop in average temperature compared to the November immediately preceding it.


Chart - nov v nov


Despite its big difference from last November, Nov. 2021 was far from the ranks of the coldest, as it tied for 80th chilliest.  (Fun Fact: Every November between 1869-1894 was colder than Nov. 2021.)  Still, it had 14 days that were five or more degrees below average.

The month's warmest reading was 69° on 11/18, followed six days later by the coldest reading (30°).  Although this was the latest date for a temperature this mild in six years, it was the first time since 2014 that the warmest November reading failed to be in the 70s.  Of note is that this warmest reading didn't occur during the 6-day period Nov. 8-13, which was six degrees milder than average.

In October, the first low in the 40s wasn't until 10/18, which was the second latest date on record.  In November, however, the fall's first reading of 32° or colder (32° on 11/23) was close to the average date of this occurrence. 

Most of the month's 1.12" of rain fell during two rain events on consecutive days:  0.48" on 11/12, and 0.33" on 11/13.  On the 13th, an uncharacteristic precipitation type for November, hail, fell for a few minutes during a quick-moving thunderstorm.  Another type of frozen precipitation, snow flurries, was reported on the last three days of the month  - but there was no accumulation in Central Park (Newark Airport reported 0.1" on the 28th).

Here are recaps of previous Novembers:











Days With Temperatures Stuck in the 60s


Stuck in the 60s

October 2021 was distinguished by having six days with highs and lows that were both in the 60s - the most such days in one month.  On average, two or three of these days occur each year, and they've occurred between May and November (ranging from 5/11 to 11/21).  September is the month most likely to have such days, and the date most likely to have one has been 9/17 (in nine years).  The year with the most  of these "stuck" days is 1903, with 13 of them (five other years have had between seven and eleven).  19 years have had none of these days, the last time being in 2019.


Chart - stuck in 60s by month

Nearly 80% of these days have had measurable rain, with 18% receiving more than an inch, and 75% a half inch or more.  The greatest rainfall on one of these days was 3.84" on Sept. 1, 1927.  (The last time three inches or more fell on a day stuck in the 60s was on Oct. 27, 2017.)  Despite the high likelihood of rain, only two of the last 15 days with temperatures stuck in the 60s had rain.  

Other observations:

  • Average high/low is 67°/62°, with average rainfall at 0.50". 
  • The most prevalent high/low is 68°/60°.  Nearly 70% of the days had highs of 67°, 68° or 69°, while  nearly 75% of the days had lows of 60°, 61°, or 62.°.
  • The warmest low on one of these days is 67°, which happened twice:  Oct. 1, 1902, and July 20, 1869. The coolest high temperature is 62°, which has occurred four times.
  • One of these days had a one-degree diurnal variation (high/low of 66°/65° on Sept. 17, 1869); 12 others had two-degree variations.

I've also written analyses about days stuck in the 30s and 70s.


Chart - years with most days stuck in 60s


October 2021 Weather Recap: 6th Mildest October Ends With Soaking Rains

 Oct 23 abingdon square park


After unprecedented rainfall in July, August, and September (each month had more than ten inches), it appeared a respite was in store during October, as the first half of the month was the driest since Oct. 2000, with just 0.15" of rain measured.  However, these dry conditions came to an abrupt end in the last week of the month, as 4.71" was measured - the wettest last week of October on record (and eight of the last nine days had measurable rainfall).  Much of the week's rain was produced by a nor'easter on the 25th-26th that dumped 3.69" of rain. 

 Chart - rainiest last week of october


The month's other storyline was its mild nighttime temperatures.  There was a record streak of lows in the 60s (13 days), which was also the month's total number of days with lows in the 60s, tying Oct. 1879 for the most on record (the average number of lows of 60+ in October is 4).  Lows during the first 12 days of the streak were in the narrow 60°-62° range; Day 13's low was 63°.  Of the eight longest streaks of lows in the 60s/70s in October, this year's record streak was the coolest.


Chart - streaks of 60_deg lows in october


Overall, the month was 4.1 degrees above average, and became the sixth mildest October on record (it ranked fourth for average low, and tied for 19th for average high).  17 days were five degrees or more above average; seven days had  below average mean temperatures.  The most above average day was 10/15, which was thirteen degrees warmer than average (high/low of 79°/63°); the most below average day was 10/1 , which was five degrees below average (67°/51°).


Temperatures during October ranged from 47° (on 10/19, 10/24, and 10/29) to 79° (on 10/15).  Only three other Octobers have had a smaller temperature range: 1977 (30 degrees); 2004 (31 degrees); and 1894 (31).    This mirrored September, which had a 31-degree variation, and was tied for third smallest variation.


In an oddity, there were six days with temperatures stuck in the 60s - the most on record for any month.  They occurred in three pairs, and were concentrated in the nine-day period between Oct. 3-11.  This narrow temperature range was largely due to persistent overcast skies.


The season's first low chillier than 50° was reported on 10/18, which was the second latest day for this occurrence (latest is 10/20).  Additionally, the month's chilliest reading of 47° (reported on three days), was the mildest chilliest reading on record for October (on average, the coldest reading in October is in the upper thirties). 


Here are previous recaps of October's weather:






October review

September 2021 Weather Recap: A Record-Setting 3rd Month in a Row with 10+ Inches of Rain


  Lee goldberg wabc

September 2021 will long be remembered for the torrential rain that fell the night of 9/1, submerging streets, highways, subway tunnels and residences.  Nearly 50 deaths in the metro area were attributed to the storm (13 of them were in NYC).  This unprecedented deluge was produced by the remnants of hurricane Ida pushing up against a mass of cool air.  Between 5 PM and 1 AM, a little more than seven inches of rain poured down (with three inches falling between 9-10 PM). 


Although heavy rain had been predicted, its intensity in such a brief period of time took residents by surprise.  (And although hurricane Henri, two weeks earlier, produced an inch more of rain than Ida, it fell over the course of 48 hours). 


Never before had a month started with so much rain, easily breaking the previous record amount on the first day of a month, 4.98" on Oct. 1, 1913.  The 7.13" measured on 9/1 was the fifth greatest amount to fall on a calendar date.  (Earlier this year, February began with a record amount of snow for the first day of any month, 14.8".)


Ida flooding nyc

The rest of the month had slightly below average rainfall, but just enough to bring September's total to 10.03".  This was the most rain to fall in September since 2004, and it became the sixth rainiest September on record.  It followed the fourth wettest August (10.32"), and third wettest July (11.09").  Never before had Central Park had three months in a row in which each month had more than ten inches of rain. 


More than 90% of the month’s of rain was produced by two storms:  7.23” on 9/1-2 and 2.03” on 9/23-24.  0.77” fell on the other 26 days.


Looking at temperatures, September was 1.1 degrees milder than average, and was the 26th mildest September (tied with four other years).  However, it ranked 13th for mildest average low, and 55th for warmest high.  12 days in a row (Sept. 12-23) had above average temperatures, a streak of days that was four degrees above average.  The rest of the month was one degree cooler than average.


The warmest reading was 85° (on 9/15), the same warmest reading as last September (but it had two days with that high).  Also, both Septembers had seven days with highs in the 80s (the average is eleven).


Half of the days in September had highs between 75°-79°, which was double the average number - and the most to be in this narrow temperature range on record (second most is 13 days in Sept. 1999, 1927 and 1908).  Just five days had lows cooler than 60°, eight fewer than average.  Only Sept. 1971, 1930, 1908, and 1881 had fewer days (all had four). 


Finally, the month was also characterized by a narrow range in its temperature extremes.  Typically, September's chilliest reading is around 50°, the hottest around 90°, but this September it ranged from 54° (on 9/29) to 85° (on 9/15).  Only two other Septembers have had a range that was smaller.  (The greatest range in temperatures in September was 55 degrees in 1929, ranging from 44° to 99°.) 


Chart - narrow range of sept temperatures


Here are previous September recaps:











August 2021 Weather Recap: Henri Rescues August From "Dullsville"


 Hurricane henri aug 2021


August was the fourth wettest August on record, but until 8/21 the month had been a dry one, with rainfall 50% below average.  Then, Hurricane Henri produced 8.19" of rain over three days (Aug. 21-23), accounting for nearly 80% of August's 10.32" of rain.  (The other 28 days of the month had just 2.13".)  This was the second month in a row with more than ten inches of rain (July had 11.09", making it the third wettest July),  just the second time this has happened (however, the first time, in March and April 1983, is disputed since the rain gauge in Central Park wasn't functioning properly for much of the year).  Although August's rainfall was less than an inch below that of July, its number of days of measurable precipitation was half as many (nine vs. eighteen).


Chart - rainiest back to back months

One out of four Augusts have been warmer than July, and August 2021 was one of them (77.5° vs. 76.0°).  The month was 1.4 degrees above average, making it the City's 17th hottest August (out of 153).  However, there was a disparity in rankings of the average high and low, as only five other Augusts have had a warmer average low than this August (2.2 degrees warmer than average), but the average high (just 0.6 above average) was ranked much lower, at #39.  This difference in rankings wasn't unique to this August, as the trend during the 2000s has been for overnight temperatures to be more above average than daytime readings (one of the effects of global warming).


After the first five days of the month were five degrees below average, the rest of the month was three above average (with only five of the 26 days having cooler than average mean temperatures).  August had five readings in the 90s, one more than July, and it had five more days than July with lows of 75° or warmer.  August's days in the 90s were comprised of back-to-back days on Aug. 12-13, and a three-day heat wave two days after Henri's departure (Aug. 25-27).  The month's hottest reading was 94° on 8/13.


Finally, this was the eighth year in a row in which August had no readings in the 50s.  The coolest temperature was 63° on 8/2.  (Meanwhile, July's streak of 12 years with no lows cooler than 60° was broken this year). 


Here are monthly recaps for past Augusts:














July 2021 - Third Rainiest July Keeps Mid-Summer Heat in Check


Noahs ark in water

With 11.09" of rain measured in Central Park, July 2021 became the third rainiest July on record (behind 1889 and 1975), and 15th wettest month overall.  This was New York's first month with ten inches or more of precipitation since June 2013 (10.10"), and the most to fall in any month since August 2011, when 18.95" flooded the City (the greatest monthly amount on record). 


A little more than half of July's rain fell on three days between July 8-12: 2.27" on 7/8; 2.06" on 7/9, and 1.42" on 7/12.  The amounts of 7/8 and 7/9 set records for the dates.  8.49" of rain fell in the first 12 days of the month (and 9.14" if 6/30 is included), then 2.60" fell thereafter (which was slightly below average for that period). 


There were 18 days of measurable rain, which was the second greatest number of days with rain in July.  July 1871 had twenty days, but just half the amount of rain as July 2021.   (Of the 27 months with ten inches or more or precipitation, the average number of days of measurable precipitation is 13.) 


Besides being rainy, this was the coolest July since 2009 (and 0.1 degree cooler than July 2014).  When all Julys are considered, July 2021 is in the middle of the pack, temperature-wise, with 54% being warmer.  The combination of a warmer than average June (+2.3 degrees), and July being 1.5 degrees cooler than average, placed these two months closer together (1.7 degrees) than any June/July combo since the summer of 2001 (when July was just 0.3 degree warmer).  Looking at average high and low, July's average high of 83.0 was just 0.5 degree warmer than June's, while the low of 69.0 was 3.0 degrees milder.  Because many days had dew points in the 68°-73° range, the air often felt oppressive rather than cool.


So close_colbert
 Chart - july close to june


For the first time since 2009, a reading in the 50s occurred in July - 59° on 7/3.  And on 7/3, the high was only 66°, which was the first high cooler than 70°in July since 2013, and the coolest reading in July since 2005 . The month's coolest and hottest readings were three days apart as a high of 92° occurred on 7/6 (and the 59° reading came three days after June's hottest temperature, 98°, on 6/30).


July had four days in the 90s, half as many as June, and the fewest such days in July since 2014, which had three.  (Seven of the Julys between 2000-2009 also had four or fewer days in the 90s.)  Although the number of days of 90+ was half the average for July, the number of lows in the 70s, 16, was an average am0unt (but ten fewer than last year's record amount).


July had 8.47" more rain than June's 2.62", but there have been ten other instances where the disparity between two months was even greater (looking only at wet months preceded by dry ones).  The greatest difference occurred in  Sept-Oct 2005, when October had 16.73", which was 16.25" more than September's bone-dry 0.48".


Chart - greatest dif in precip btwn 2 mos

Finally, after suffering through sweltering heat, and a nighttime thunderstorm on the last day of June, the last day of July couldn't have been more different, as skies were clear and temperatures on the cool side (high/low of 77°/60°).  While 6/30's high of 98° (14 degrees above average) was the hottest reading on that date since 1964, 7/31's low of 60° (ten degrees below average) was the chilliest since 1956.


July 2021

Here are other July recaps:

July 2020

July 2019

July 2018

July 2017

July 2016

July 2015

July 2014